[Open Access] BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON COVID-19 IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION HEALTH

BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON COVID-19 IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION HEALTH

International Organization for Migration
20th April 2020
Under review

“To strengthen the current knowledge base on COVID-19 and migration health, the scientific and research community should consider examining specific health-related outcomes in specific migrant groups as well as other relevant variables that can impact on migrants (i.e. structure and process measures). Investigations on COVID-19 and migration health should not be limited to the role of movement/mobility in the dynamic importation of cases in a pandemic; a more inclusive research strategy integrating the relevant interests of migrant populations is suggested.”

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[Open Access] Neglect of low-income migrants in covid-19 response

Neglect of low-income migrants in covid-19 response

A South Asian perspective on the failures of global and national public health policies

THE BMJ OPINION | 29 MAY 2020

“Given the regional implications, countries in South Asia must “act in unison” to conceive public health for the entire region. [6] The Covid-19 Emergency Fund created by South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is a promising step. However, an effective response requires greater regional cooperation, facilitating safe passage, and strong political commitment to universalise health and social protection, continue primary care and guarantee socio-economic rights. Ignoring poor migrants and those in informal economies nationally will not only erode lives but also impede national economic and social recovery from covid-19.”

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Anuj Kapilashrami is senior lecturer in gender and global health policy at the Centre for Global Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

Anns Issac is technical officer at the Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, New Delhi, India

Jeevan Sharma is senior lecturer in South Asia and International development at the School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

Kolitha Wickramage is the Migration Health Research and Epidemiology coordinator at the Migration Health Division, the UN Migration Agency, Manila, Philippines

Ekatha Ann John is researcher at Centre for Global Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

Divya Ravindranath is postdoctoral fellow at the Indian Institute of Human Settlements, Bengaluru, India 

Roomi Aziz is technical lead in health data and communication at Pathway to Impact, Punjab, Pakistan 

Patrick Duigan is the regional migration health advisor, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, International Organization for Migration, Bangkok, Thailand

on behalf of the Migration Health South Asia network

[Open Access] National preparedness and response plans for COVID-19 and other diseases: Why migrants should be included

National preparedness and response plans for COVID-19 and other diseases: Why migrants should be included

Dominik Zenner and Kolitha Wickramage

Migration Data Portal | 14 May 2020

“An inclusive approach to epidemic control requires detailed knowledge and information about all relevant population groups, including their demography, their cultural-linguistic and socio-economic needs and of course, their health and illness, including COVID-19. The benefits of ensuring that public health messages can be understood and help appropriately should be obvious for any public health campaign and are vital if COVID-19 is to be successfully controlled. It is also critical to understand potential benefits and costs of public health measures to all population groups, and to avoid inadvertently aggravating vulnerabilities, such as deterrence of health service access through police-enforced social distancing measures or separation of migrants from family and social support networks when being stranded due to border closures.

In many countries, rapidly applied and crude public health measures for COVID-19 are increasingly being fine-tuned in renewed efforts of deconfinement of populations. This phase will require detailed knowledge and information about the epidemic and active inclusion of all migrant population groups in healthcare and in epidemic control plans will not only be the right thing to do from a human rights perspective, but also vital to successful COVID-19 control going forward.”

Read the full article here

Lancet Migration: Migration and Covid-19 Resources

Lancet Migration has developed a Covid-19 resource platform.

“People on the move, whether they are economic migrants or forcibly displaced persons such asylum seekers, refugees, and internally displaced persons, should be explicitly included in the responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This global public health emergency brings into focus, and may exacerbate, the barriers to healthcare these populations face. Many migrant & refugee populations live in conditions where physical distancing and recommended hygiene measures are particularly challenging. The Covid-19 pandemic reveals the extent of marginalisation migrant & refugee populations face.  We have developed a resource platform to encourage knowledge sharing across different  regions globally and to highlight the  need to include migrants and refugees in the Covid-19 response.”

Further information and the resource platform can be found here

[Open Access] The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic

CORRESPONDENCE | LANCET PSYCHIATRY | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 4, E20, APRIL 01, 2020

The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic

“Of the 150 million international migrant workers (IMWs) worldwide, 95% reside in the five WHO regions in which cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed. The absence of a coordinated response for IMWs highlights a key deficiency in public health planning.”

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[Open ACcess] ethnicity and COVID-19: an urgent public health research priority

CORRESPONDENCE | THE LANCET | VOLUME 395, ISSUE 10234, P1421-1422, MAY 02, 2020

Ethnicity and COVID-19: an urgent public health research priority

“As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues advancing globally, reporting of clinical outcomes and risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality are emerging. Early Chinese and Italian reports associated increasing age, male sex, smoking, and cardiometabolic comorbidity with adverse outcomes.1 Striking differences between Chinese and Italian mortality indicate ethnicity might affect disease outcome, but there is little to no data to support or refute this.”

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[Open Access] Is ethnicity linked to incidence or outcomes of covid-19?

Is ethnicity linked to incidence or outcomes of Covid-19?

BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1548 (Published 20 April 2020)

“Clear evidence to confirm or rule out an association between ethnicity and outcome in covid-19 is important not only for the UK but also for other regions such as South Asia and Africa, where the pandemic is at an earlier stage. Efforts must be coordinated to collect an international data set that includes ethnicity. If an association is confirmed, further research will be needed to determine the causes.”

Read the full paper here

[Open Access] Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data

Aldridge RW, Lewer D, Katikireddi SV et al. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data [version 1; peer review: 3 approved with reservations]. Wellcome Open Res 2020, 5:88 (https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15922.1)

ABSTRACT

Background: International and UK data suggest that Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are at increased risk of infection and death from COVID-19. We aimed to explore the risk of death in minority ethnic groups in England using data reported by NHS England.
Methods: We used NHS data on patients with a positive COVID-19 test who died in hospitals in England published on 28th April, with deaths by ethnicity available from 1st March 2020 up to 5pm on 21 April 2020. We undertook indirect standardisation of these data (using the whole population of England as the reference) to produce ethnic specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age and geographical region.
Results: The largest total number of deaths in minority ethnic groups were Indian (492 deaths) and Black Caribbean (460 deaths) groups. Adjusting for region we found a lower risk of death for White Irish (SMR 0.52; 95%CIs 0.45-0.60) and White British ethnic groups (0.88; 95%CIs 0.86-0.0.89), but increased risk of death for Black African (3.24; 95%CIs 2.90-3.62), Black Caribbean (2.21; 95%CIs 2.02-2.41), Pakistani (3.29; 95%CIs 2.96-3.64), Bangladeshi (2.41; 95%CIs 1.98-2.91) and Indian (1.70; 95%CIs 1.56-1.85) minority ethnic groups.
Conclusion: Our analysis adds to the evidence that BAME people are at increased risk of death from COVID-19 even after adjusting for geographical region. We believe there is an urgent need to take action to reduce the risk of death for BAME groups and better understand why some ethnic groups experience greater risk. Actions that are likely to reduce these inequities include ensuring adequate income protection (so that low paid and zero-hours contract workers can afford to follow social distancing recommendations), reducing occupational risks (such as ensuring adequate personal protective equipment), reducing barriers in accessing healthcare and providing culturally and linguistically appropriate public health communications.

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Abstract

[Open Access] Global call to action for inclusion of migrants and refugees in the COVID-19 response

CORRESPONDENCE | THE LANCET | VOLUME 395, ISSUE 10235, P1482-1483, MAY 09, 2020

Global call to action for inclusion of migrants and refugees in the COVID-19 response

“Lancet Migration1 calls for migrants and refugees to be urgently included in responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.2 Many of these populations live, travel, and work in conditions where physical distancing and recommended hygiene measures are impossible because of poor living conditions3 and great economic precarity. This global public health emergency highlights the exclusion and multiple barriers to health care4 that are faced by migrants and refugees, among whom COVID-19 threatens to have rapid and devastating effects.5 From an enlightened self-interest perspective, measures to control the outbreak of COVID-19 will only be successful if all populations are included in the national and international responses. Moreover, excluding migrants and refugees contradicts the commitment to leave no one behind and the ethics of justice that underpin public health. Principles of solidarity, human rights, and equity must be central to the COVID-19 response; otherwise the world risks leaving behind those who are most marginalised. Join our global call to action for the inclusion of migrants and refugees in the COVID-19 response (panel).”

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[Open Access] Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses

Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses

CORRESPONDENCE | THE LANCET | VOLUME 395, ISSUE 10231, P1194, APRIL 11, 2020

“The strength of a health system is inseparable from broader social systems that surround it. Epidemics place increased demands on scarce resources and enormous stress on social and economic systems. Health protection relies not only on a well functioning health system with universal coverage, but also on social inclusion, justice, and solidarity. In the absence of these factors, inequalities are magnified and scapegoating persists, with discrimination remaining long after. Division and fear of others will lead to worse outcomes for all.”

Read the full article here